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INLYTA®Warnings and Precautions (axitinib)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypertension and Hypertensive Crisis

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, hypertension was reported in 145/359 patients (40%) receiving INLYTA and 103/355 patients (29%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 hypertension was observed in 56/359 patients (16%) receiving INLYTA and 39/355 patients (11%) receiving sorafenib. Hypertensive crisis was reported in 2/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib. The median onset time for hypertension (systolic blood pressure >150 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure >100 mmHg) was within the first month of the start of INLYTA treatment and blood pressure increases have been observed as early as 4 days after starting INLYTA. Hypertension was managed with standard anti-hypertensive therapy. Discontinuation of INLYTA treatment due to hypertension occurred in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Blood pressure should be well-controlled prior to initiating INLYTA. Patients should be monitored for hypertension and treated as needed with standard anti-hypertensive therapy. In the case of persistent hypertension despite use of anti-hypertensive medications, reduce the INLYTA dose. Discontinue INLYTA if hypertension is severe and persistent despite anti-hypertensive therapy and dose reduction of INLYTA, and discontinuation should be considered if there is evidence of hypertensive crisis. If INLYTA is interrupted, patients receiving anti-hypertensive medications should be monitored for hypotension [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

5.2 Arterial Thromboembolic Events

In clinical trials, arterial thromboembolic events have been reported, including deaths. In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, Grade 3/4 arterial thromboembolic events were reported in 4/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 4/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Fatal cerebrovascular accident was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

In clinical trials with INLYTA, arterial thromboembolic events (including transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, and retinal artery occlusion) were reported in 17/715 patients (2%), with two deaths secondary to cerebrovascular accident.

Use INLYTA with caution in patients who are at risk for, or who have a history of, these events. INLYTA has not been studied in patients who had an arterial thromboembolic event within the previous 12 months.

5.3 Venous Thromboembolic Events

In clinical trials, venous thromboembolic events have been reported, including deaths. In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, venous thromboembolic events were reported in 11/359 patients (3%) receiving INLYTA and 2/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 venous thromboembolic events were reported in 9/359 patients (3%) receiving INLYTA (including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, retinal vein occlusion and retinal vein thrombosis) and 2/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Fatal pulmonary embolism was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib. In clinical trials with INLYTA, venous thromboembolic events were reported in 22/715 patients (3%), with two deaths secondary to pulmonary embolism.

Use INLYTA with caution in patients who are at risk for, or who have a history of, these events. INLYTA has not been studied in patients who had a venous thromboembolic event within the previous 6 months.

5.4 Hemorrhage

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, hemorrhagic events were reported in 58/359 patients (16%) receiving INLYTA and 64/355 patients (18%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 hemorrhagic events were reported in 5/359 (1%) patients receiving INLYTA (including cerebral hemorrhage, hematuria, hemoptysis, lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and melena) and 11/355 (3%) patients receiving sorafenib. Fatal hemorrhage was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA (gastric hemorrhage) and 3/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib.

INLYTA has not been studied in patients who have evidence of untreated brain metastasis or recent active gastrointestinal bleeding and should not be used in those patients. If any bleeding requires medical intervention, temporarily interrupt the INLYTA dose.

5.5 Cardiac Failure

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, cardiac failure was reported in 6/359 patients (2%) receiving INLYTA and 3/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3/4 cardiac failure was observed in 2/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 1/355 patients (<1%) receiving sorafenib. Fatal cardiac failure was reported in 2/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 1/355 patients (<1%) receiving sorafenib. Monitor for signs or symptoms of cardiac failure throughout treatment with INLYTA. Management of cardiac failure may require permanent discontinuation of INLYTA.

5.6 Gastrointestinal Perforation and Fistula Formation

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, gastrointestinal perforation was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib. In clinical trials with INLYTA, gastrointestinal perforation was reported in 5/715 patients (1%), including one death. In addition to cases of gastrointestinal perforation, fistulas were reported in 4/715 patients (1%).

Monitor for symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or fistula periodically throughout treatment with INLYTA.

5.7 Thyroid Dysfunction

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, hypothyroidism was reported in 69/359 patients (19%) receiving INLYTA and 29/355 patients (8%) receiving sorafenib. Hyperthyroidism was reported in 4/359 patients (1%) receiving INLYTA and 4/355 patients (1%) receiving sorafenib. In patients who had thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) <5 μU/mL before treatment, elevations of TSH to ≥10 μU/mL occurred in 79/245 patients (32%) receiving INLYTA and 25/232 patients (11%) receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Monitor thyroid function before initiation of, and periodically throughout, treatment with INLYTA. Treat hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to standard medical practice to maintain euthyroid state.

5.8 Risk of Impaired Wound Healing

Impaired wound healing can occur in patients who receive drugs that inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway. Therefore, INLYTA has the potential to adversely affect wound healing.

Withhold INLYTA for at least 2 days prior to elective surgery. Do not administer for at least 2 weeks following major surgery and until adequate wound healing. The safety of resumption of INLYTA after resolution of wound healing complications has not been established.

5.9 Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) was reported in 1/359 patients (<1%) receiving INLYTA and none of the patients receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. There were two additional reports of RPLS in other clinical trials with INLYTA.

RPLS is a neurological disorder which can present with headache, seizure, lethargy, confusion, blindness and other visual and neurologic disturbances. Mild to severe hypertension may be present. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of RPLS. Discontinue INLYTA in patients developing RPLS. The safety of reinitiating INLYTA therapy in patients previously experiencing RPLS is not known.

5.10 Proteinuria

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, proteinuria was reported in 39/359 patients (11%) receiving INLYTA and 26/355 patients (7%) receiving sorafenib. Grade 3 proteinuria was reported in 11/359 patients (3%) receiving INLYTA and 6/355 patients (2%) receiving sorafenib [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Monitoring for proteinuria before initiation of, and periodically throughout, treatment with INLYTA is recommended. For patients who develop moderate to severe proteinuria, reduce the dose or temporarily interrupt INLYTA treatment.

5.11 Hepatotoxicity

INLYTA as a Single Agent

In a controlled clinical study with INLYTA for the treatment of patients with RCC, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations of all grades occurred in 22% of patients on both arms, with Grade 3/4 events in <1% of patients on the INLYTA arm. When used as a single agent, monitor ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin before initiation of and periodically throughout treatment with INLYTA.

INLYTA in Combination with Avelumab or with Pembrolizumab

INLYTA in combination with avelumab or with pembrolizumab can cause hepatotoxicity with higher than expected frequencies of Grade 3 and 4 ALT and AST elevation. Consider more frequent monitoring of liver enzymes as compared to when the drugs are used as monotherapy.

With the combination of INLYTA and avelumab, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT and increased AST were reported in 9% and 7% of patients, respectively. In patients with ALT ≥3 times ULN (Grades 2–4, n=82), ALT resolved to Grades 0–1 in 92%. Among the 73 patients who were rechallenged with either avelumab (59%) or axitinib (85%) monotherapy or with both (55%), 66% had no recurrence of ALT ≥3 times ULN.

With the combination of INLYTA and pembrolizumab, Grades 3 and 4 increased ALT (20%) and increased AST (13%) were seen. The median time to onset of increased ALT was 2.3 months (range: 7 days to 19.8 months). Fifty-nine percent of the patients with increased ALT received systemic corticosteroids. In patients with ALT ≥3 times ULN (Grades 2–4, n=116), ALT resolved to Grades 0–1 in 94%. Among the 92 patients who were rechallenged with either pembrolizumab (3%) or axitinib (31%) administered as a single agent or with both (50%), 55% had no recurrence of ALT >3 times ULN.

Withhold INLYTA and avelumab for moderate (Grade 2) hepatotoxicity and permanently discontinue the combination for severe or life-threatening (Grade 3 or 4) hepatotoxicity. Administer corticosteroids as needed [see avelumab full prescribing information].

For elevated liver enzymes, interrupt INLYTA and pembrolizumab and consider administering corticosteroids as needed [see pembrolizumab full prescribing information].

5.12 Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

The systemic exposure to axitinib was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. A dose decrease is recommended when administering INLYTA to patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B). INLYTA has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.13 Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE)

INLYTA in combination with avelumab can cause severe and fatal cardiovascular events. Consider baseline and periodic evaluations of left ventricular ejection fraction. Monitor for signs and symptoms of cardiovascular events. Optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Discontinue INLYTA and avelumab for Grade 3–4 cardiovascular events.

MACE occurred in 7% of patients with advanced RCC treated with INLYTA in combination with avelumab compared to 3.4% treated with sunitinib in a randomized trial, JAVELIN Renal 101. These events included death due to cardiac events (1.4%), Grade 3–4 myocardial infarction (2.8%), and Grade 3–4 congestive heart failure (1.8%). Median time to onset of MACE was 4.2 months (range: 2 days to 24.5 months).

5.14 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Based on its mechanism of action and findings from animal studies, INLYTA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available human data to inform the drug-associated risk. In developmental toxicity studies in mice, axitinib was teratogenic, embryotoxic and fetotoxic at maternal exposures that were lower than human exposures at the recommended clinical dose. Advise females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to the fetus and to use effective contraception during treatment with INLYTA and for 1 week after the last dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INLYTA and for 1 week after the last dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)].

When INLYTA is used in combination with avelumab or pembrolizumab, refer to the full prescribing information of avelumab or pembrolizumab for pregnancy and contraception information.

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