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PREMARIN®Clinical Studies (conjugated estrogens)

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Effects on Vasomotor Symptoms

In the first year of the Health and Osteoporosis, Progestin and Estrogen (HOPE) Study, a total of 2,805 postmenopausal women (average age 53.3 ± 4.9 years) were randomly assigned to one of eight treatment groups of either placebo or conjugated estrogens, with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate. Efficacy for vasomotor symptoms was assessed during the first 12 weeks of treatment in a subset of symptomatic women (n = 241) who had at least seven moderate to severe hot flushes daily, or at least 50 moderate to severe hot flushes during the week before randomization. PREMARIN (0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, and 0.625 mg tablets) was shown to be statistically better than placebo at weeks 4 and 12 for relief of both frequency and severity of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. Table 3 shows the adjusted mean number of hot flushes in the PREMARIN 0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, and 0.625 mg and placebo groups during the initial 12-week period.

Table 3: SUMMARY TABULATION OF THE NUMBER OF HOT FLUSHES PER DAY – MEAN VALUES AND COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE ACTIVE TREATMENT GROUPS AND THE PLACEBO GROUP: PATIENTS WITH AT LEAST 7 MODERATE TO SEVERE FLUSHES PER DAY OR AT LEAST 50 PER WEEK AT BASELINE, LAST OBSERVATION CARRIED FORWARD (LOCF)
Treatment (No. of Patients)---------------No. of Hot Flushes/Day---------------
Time Period (week)Baseline Mean ± SDObserved Mean ± SDMean Change ± SDp-Values vs Placebo*
*
Based on analysis of covariance with treatment as factor and baseline as covariate.
0.625 mg CE (n = 27)
412.29 ± 3.891.95 ± 2.77-10.34 ± 4.73<0.001
1212.29 ± 3.890.75 ± 1.82-11.54 ± 4.62<0.001
0.45 mg CE (n = 32)
412.25 ± 5.045.04 ± 5.31-7.21 ± 4.75<0.001
1212.25 ± 5.042.32 ± 3.32-9.93 ± 4.64<0.001
0.3 mg CE (n = 30)
413.77 ± 4.784.65 ± 3.71-9.12 ± 4.71<0.001
1213.77 ± 4.782.52 ± 3.23-11.25 ± 4.60<0.001
Placebo (n = 28)
411.69 ± 3.877.89 ± 5.28-3.80 ± 4.71-
1211.69 ± 3.875.71 ± 5.22-5.98 ± 4.60-

14.2 Effects on Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy

Results of vaginal maturation indexes at cycles 6 and 13 showed that the differences from placebo were statistically significant (p < 0.001) for all treatment groups. (conjugated estrogens alone and conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment groups).

14.3 Effects on Bone Mineral Density

Health and Osteoporosis, Progestin and Estrogen (HOPE) Study

The HOPE study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo/active-drug-controlled, multicenter study of healthy postmenopausal women with an intact uterus. Subjects (mean age 53.3 ± 4.9 years) were 2.3 ± 0.9 years on average since menopause and took one 600 mg tablet of elemental calcium (Caltrate™) daily. Subjects were not given Vitamin D supplements. They were treated with PREMARIN 0.625 mg, 0.45 mg, 0.3 mg, or placebo. Prevention of bone loss was assessed by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), primarily at the anteroposterior lumbar spine (L2 to L4). Secondarily, BMD measurements of the total body, femoral neck, and trochanter were also analyzed. Serum osteocalcin, urinary calcium, and N-telopeptide were used as bone turnover markers (BTM) at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26.

Intent-to-treat subjects

All active treatment groups showed significant differences from placebo in each of the four BMD endpoints at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26. The mean percent increases in the primary efficacy measure (L2 to L4 BMD) at the final on-therapy evaluation (cycle 26 for those who completed and the last available evaluation for those who discontinued early) were 2.46 percent with 0.625 mg, 2.26 percent with 0.45 mg, and 1.13 percent with 0.3 mg. The placebo group showed a mean percent decrease from baseline at the final evaluation of 2.45 percent. These results show that the lower dosages of PREMARIN were effective in increasing L2 to L4 BMD compared with placebo, and therefore support the efficacy of the lower doses.

The analysis for the other three BMD endpoints yielded mean percent changes from baseline in femoral trochanter that were generally larger than those seen for L2 to L4, and changes in femoral neck and total body that were generally smaller than those seen for L2 to L4. Significant differences between groups indicated that each of the PREMARIN treatments was more effective than placebo for all three of these additional BMD endpoints. With regard to femoral neck and total body, the active treatment groups all showed mean percent increases in BMD, while placebo treatment was accompanied by mean percent decreases. For femoral trochanter, each of the PREMARIN dose groups showed a mean percent increase that was significantly greater than the small increase seen in the placebo group. The percent changes from baseline to final evaluation are shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4: PERCENT CHANGE IN BONE MINERAL DENSITY: COMPARISON BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PLACEBO GROUPS IN THE INTENT-TO-TREAT POPULATION, LOCF
Region Evaluated Treatment Group*No. of SubjectsBaseline (g/cm2) Mean ± SDChange from Baseline (%) Adjusted Mean ± SEp-Value vs. Placebo
*
Identified by dosage (mg) of PREMARIN or placebo.
L2 to L4 BMD
0.625831.17 ± 0.152.46 ± 0.37<0.001
0.45911.13 ± 0.152.26 ± 0.35<0.001
0.3871.14 ± 0.151.13 ± 0.36<0.001
Placebo851.14 ± 0.14-2.45 ± 0.36
Total Body BMD
0.625841.15 ± 0.080.68 ± 0.17<0.001
0.45911.14 ± 0.080.74 ± 0.16<0.001
0.3871.14 ± 0.070.40 ± 0.17<0.001
Placebo851.13 ± 0.08-1.50 ± 0.17
Femoral Neck BMD
0.625840.91 ± 0.141.82 ± 0.45<0.001
0.45910.89 ± 0.131.84 ± 0.44<0.001
0.3870.86 ± 0.110.62 ± 0.45<0.001
Placebo850.88 ± 0.14-1.72 ± 0.45
Femoral Trochanter BMD
0.625840.78 ± 0.133.82 ± 0.58<0.001
0.45910.76 ± 0.123.16 ± 0.560.003
0.3870.75 ± 0.103.05 ± 0.570.005
Placebo850.75 ± 0.120.81 ± 0.58

Figure 1 shows the cumulative percentage of subjects with changes from baseline equal to or greater than the value shown on the x-axis.

Figure 1

Figure 1. CUMULATIVE PERCENT OF SUBJECTS WITH CHANGES FROM BASELINE IN SPINE BMD OF GIVEN MAGNITUDE OR GREATER IN PREMARIN AND PLACEBO GROUPS

The mean percent changes from baseline in L2 to L4 BMD for women who completed the bone density study are shown with standard error bars by treatment group in Figure 2. Significant differences between each of the PREMARIN dosage groups and placebo were found at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26.

Figure 2

Figure 2. ADJUSTED MEAN (SE) PERCENT CHANGE FROM BASELINE AT EACH CYCLE IN SPINE BMD: SUBJECTS COMPLETING IN PREMARIN GROUPS AND PLACEBO

The bone turnover markers, serum osteocalcin and urinary N-telopeptide, significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in all active-treatment groups at cycles 6, 13, 19, and 26 compared with the placebo group. Larger mean decreases from baseline were seen with the active groups than with the placebo group. Significant differences from placebo were seen less frequently in urine calcium.

14.4 Effects on Female Hypogonadism

In clinical studies of delayed puberty due to female hypogonadism, breast development was induced by doses as low as 0.15 mg. The dosage may be gradually titrated upward at 6-to 12 month intervals as needed to achieve appropriate bone age advancement and eventual epiphyseal closure. Clinical studies suggest that doses of 0.15 mg, 0.3 mg, and 0.6 mg are associated with mean ratios of bone age advancement to chronological age progression (ΔBA/ΔCA) of 1.1, 1.5, and 2.1, respectively. (PREMARIN in the dose strength of 0.15 mg is not available commercially). Available data suggest that chronic dosing with 0.625 mg is sufficient to induce artificial cyclic menses with sequential progestin treatment and to maintain bone mineral density after skeletal maturity is achieved.

14.5 Women's Health Initiative Studies

The WHI enrolled approximately 27,000 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women in two substudies to assess the risks and benefits of daily oral CE (0.625 mg)-alone or in combination with MPA (2.5 mg) compared to placebo in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CHD (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome. A "global index" included the earliest occurrence of CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, PE, endometrial cancer (only in the CE plus MPA substudy), colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes. These substudies did not evaluate the effects of CE-alone or CE plus MPA on menopausal symptoms.

WHI Estrogen-Alone Substudy

The WHI estrogen-alone substudy was stopped early because an increased risk of stroke was observed, and it was deemed that no further information would be obtained regarding the risks and benefits of estrogen alone in predetermined primary endpoints.

Results of the estrogen-alone substudy, which included 10,739 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 75.3 percent White, 15.1 percent Black, 6.1 percent Hispanic, 3.6 percent Other) after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, are presented in Table 5.

TABLE 5: RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE RISK SEEN IN THE ESTROGEN ALONE SUBSTUDY OF WHI*
Event Relative Risk
CE vs. Placebo
CE
n = 5,310
Placebo
n = 5,429
(95% nCI) Absolute Risk per 10,000 Women-Years
*
Adapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi.
Nominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons.
Results are based on centrally adjudicated data for an average follow-up of 7.1 years.
§
Not included in "global index."
Results are based on an average follow-up of 6.8 years.
#
All deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite/probable CHD, PE or cerebrovascular disease.
Þ
A subset of the events was combined in a "global index" defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes.
CHD events0.95 (0.78–1.16) 5457
  Non-fatal MI0.91 (0.731.14)4043
  CHD death1.01 (0.711.43)1616
All Stroke1.33 (1.05–1.68) 4533
  Ischemic stroke1.55 (1.19–2.01)3825
Deep vein thrombosis,§1.47 (1.06–2.06) 2315
Pulmonary embolism1.37 (0.90–2.07) 14 10
Invasive breast cancer0.80 (0.62–1.04) 2834
Colorectal cancer1.08 (0.75–1.55) 1716
Hip fracture0.65 (0.45–0.94) 12 19
Vertebral fractures,§0.64 (0.44–0.93)1118
Lower arm/wrist fractures,§0.58 (0.47–0.72) 3559
Total fractures,§0.71 (0.64–0.80) 144197
Death due to other causes,#1.08 (0.88–1.32) 5350
Overall mortality,§1.04 (0.88–1.22) 7975
Global IndexÞ1.02 (0.92–1.13) 206201

For those outcomes included in the WHI "global index" that reached statistical significance, the absolute excess risk per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE-alone was 12 more strokes while the absolute risk reduction per 10,000 women-years was 7 fewer hip fractures.9 The absolute excess risk of events included in the "global index" was a non-significant 5 events per 10,000 women-years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of all-cause mortality.

No overall difference for primary CHD events (nonfatal MI, silent MI and CHD death) and invasive breast cancer incidence in women receiving CE-alone compared with placebo was reported in final centrally adjudicated results from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow up of 7.1 years. See Table 5.

Centrally adjudicated results for stroke events from the estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, reported no significant difference in distribution of stroke subtype or severity, including fatal strokes, in women receiving CE-alone compared to placebo. Estrogen-alone increased the risk for ischemic stroke, and this excess risk was present in all subgroups of women examined.10

Timing of the initiation of estrogen-alone therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen-alone substudy stratified by age showed in women 50–59 years of age, a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for CHD [hazard ratio (HR) 0.63 (95 percent CI 0.36–1.09)] and overall mortality [HR 0.71 (95 percent CI 0.46–1.11)].

WHI Estrogen Plus Progestin Substudy

The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy was stopped early. According to the predefined stopping rule, after an average follow-up of 5.6 years of treatment, the increased risk of invasive breast cancer and cardiovascular events exceeded the specified benefits included in the "global index." The absolute excess risk of events included in the "global index" was 19 per 10,000 women-years.

For those outcomes included in the WHI "global index" that reached statistical significance after 5.6 years of follow-up, the absolute excess risks per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE plus MPA were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 10 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while the absolute risk reductions per 10,000 women-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures.

Results of the estrogen plus progestin substudy, which included 16,608 women (average 63 years of age, range 50 to 79; 83.9 percent White, 6.8 percent Black, 5.4 percent Hispanic, 3.9 percent Other) are presented in Table 6. These results reflect centrally adjudicated data after an average follow-up of 5.6 years.

TABLE 6: RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE RISK SEEN IN THE ESTROGEN PLUS PROGESTIN SUBSTUDY OF WHI AT AN AVERAGE OF 5.6 YEARS*,
Relative Risk
CE/MPA vs. Placebo
CE/MPA
n = 8,506
Placebo
n = 8,102
Event(95% nCI)Absolute Risk per 10,000 Women-Years
*
Adapted from numerous WHI publications. WHI publications can be viewed at www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi.
Results are based on centrally adjudicated data.
Nominal confidence intervals unadjusted for multiple looks and multiple comparisons.
§
Not included in "global index."
Includes metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer, with the exception of in situ cancer.
#
All deaths, except from breast or colorectal cancer, definite or probable CHD, PE or cerebrovascular disease.
Þ
A subset of the events was combined in a "global index" defined as the earliest occurrence of CHD events, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other causes.
CHD events 1.23 (0.99–1.53) 4134
  Non-fatal MI1.28 (1.00–1.63)3125
  CHD death1.10 (0.70–1.75)88
All Strokes1.31 (1.03–1.68) 3325
  Ischemic stroke1.44 (1.09–1.90)2618
Deep vein thrombosis§1.95 (1.43–2.67) 2613
Pulmonary embolism2.13 (1.45–3.11) 18 8
Invasive breast cancer1.24 (1.01–1.54) 4133
Colorectal cancer0.61 (0.42–0.87) 1016
Endometrial cancer§0.81 (0.48–1.36) 67
Cervical cancer§1.44 (0.47–4.42) 21
Hip fracture0.67 (0.47–0.96) 1116
Vertebral fractures§0.65 (0.46–0.92) 1117
Lower arm/wrist fractures§0.71 (0.59–0.85) 4462
Total fractures§0.76 (0.69–0.83) 152199
Overall Mortality#1.00 (0.83–1.19) 5252
Global IndexÞ1.13 (1.02–1.25) 184 165

Timing of the initiation of estrogen therapy relative to the start of menopause may affect the overall risk benefit profile. The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy stratified by age showed in women 50–59 years of age, a non-significant trend toward reduced risk for overall mortality [HR 0.69 (95 percent CI 0.44–1.07)].

14.6 Women's Health Initiative Memory Study

The WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI enrolled 2,947 predominantly healthy hysterectomized postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age (45 percent were 65 to 69 years of age; 36 percent were 70 to 74 years of age; 19 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg)- alone on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.

After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI 0.83–2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed types (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in the treatment group and the placebo groups was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

The WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study enrolled 4,532 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (47 percent were 65 to 69 years of age; 35 percent were 70 to 74 years; 18 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared to placebo.

After an average follow-up of 4 years, the relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21–3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) versus placebo was 45 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years. Probable dementia as defined in this study included AD, VaD and mixed types (having features of both AD and VaD). The most common classification of probable dementia in both the treatment and placebo groups was AD. Since the ancillary study was conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

When data from the two populations were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI 1.19–2.60). Differences between groups became apparent in the first year of treatment. It is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

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